September 17th, 1939the day Soviet Russia attacked Poland

September 1st, 1939 is the day on which - Poland and Germany agree - World War 2 started. The Polish call it September Campaign, the Germans - Fall White.

Poland was a militarily strong country for one that was coming out of a deep economical crisis. At first Hitler wanted to ally with Poland before attacking France. Yet, when Nazi German minister Ribbentrop tried to sign a military pact with Poland, Polish minister Beck replied that there is no way in hell Poland would be co-working with a monster.

That’s when Ribbentrop went to sign a secret pact with Soviet minister Molotov, instead - Nazi Germany alone was too weak to deal with Poland. Polish intelligence was one of the best ones in the world, too, so the secret pact was reported - but the head of intelligence laid it on the pile with diversion attempts, for he deemed an idea of those two set-against-each-other ideologies co-operating absurd.

Poland was a formidable enemy, but Hitler was arrogant. Originally, he planned to win Fall White after four days, and didn’t count on having to send reinforcements. (To compare: the rest of countries of continental Europe lasted from few hours to four days.) At first, the German army could barely move into the Polish borders by land, even though the cities were bombarded from the air. On September the 3rd Hitler send a telegram to Stalin to “hurry, and move already.” On the 5th Stalin send an answer “we aren’t ready yet.” It’s said that Hitler had a fit.

Fall White was planned by military doctrine only and it failed to take into account both human factor and the nature. Many Polish military posts were keeping defence for longer that it was theoretically possible. The Poles were blowing out the bridges. German tanks couldn’t move through the rivers, between the trees of thick forests, and were getting stuck in the mud (the Polish tanks were much better suited for that kind of terrain) - the German soldiers had to steal (or rather - catch from the wild, as the land-owner freed them upon the news of war) specially trained small horses (looking like ponies, really) to move those tanks anywhere.

Polish military knew the terrain. The Germans repeatedly reported higher numbers of the Polish units than existed, for horses could swiftly transport the soldiers between one battle and another through the terrain that was inaccessible to mechanical vehicles. Once Germans accidentally caught such a transport-column mid-way, so they recorded it and made a propaganda movie of “the Poles attacking German tanks with swords.” In reality, such an attack happened once - the Polish unit won enough of place to pass through due to a sheer astonishment of the Germans. In reality, commander of one of the Polish units that was forced to surrender due to running out of ammunition - had learnt from his German counterpart that 10 days more, and the Germans would be forced to back off because… they would run out of ammunition.

Speaking of horses, there was a horse-riding unit send from Prussia, probably as a challenge to rematch after the Grunwald battle (1410) - it didn’t make it to Nazi propaganda, because when the Poles took the challenge, the Prussian horse unit was trashed by the Polish horse unit.

From where the Polish army moved out due to strategical reasons, the volunteer Polish Scouts and civilians took their place and held the Germans back for as long as they could. Even single rooms were bastions worth defending. Also, they were army volunteers who single-handedly held German units back, by using the smoke and noise to create an illusion of Polish units being there. (All the people mentioned in this paragraph were aware that those were suicidal missions.)

It is said that the German intelligence messed with the Air Force strategy, for the communication was scrambled and they had trouble coordinating the strategy; it’s theorised that if not for some counter-productive messages, the Air Force could have been able to push Nazi Germany not only back to its borders, but even a bit farther.

All that time everyone was waiting for the promised help of the other Allied countries. All the Polish strategy was centred around receiving reinforcement from France and Britain. All that time it seemed that France and Britain will come to fight within a day or two.

On September 17th, Soviet Russia attacked. Russia entered the terrain where the strategic stuff was moved for safety from the Nazis… The Polish high command came up with that crazy plan of setting the Soviets against the Nazis. They issued an order to “not fight the Russians unless attacked.” The Russians were also given an order to not make a mess (they were to make an impression of heroes coming to help,) but they attacked many places non-the-less, plundering and raping - and so the people fought back in those places. (The Poles tend to lynch unconvinced rapists.)

The Poles described the Red Army as so dirty that they didn’t look like soldiers (it was customary for Polish soldiers to polish their shoes and equipment excessively), but coming in uncountable numbers. They also kept explaining to the Poles in very simplified terms things like what sugar is (it was like explaining to an American what coffee is) - for the shops were closed because of the war.

Straight away, the Russians sorted out the Polish intellectual class (all the Polish officers were intellectuals) by their soft hands -if your skin wasn’t hard from repetitive physical work, you would qualify - made a show of arresting them as “Nazi spies,” and sent them to the East some time later. The Poles complied, taking a guess that a war between Nazi Germany and Soviet Russia was bound to soon become a reality - and that the Soviet Russia would be desperate for good strategists, then. But before it happened, the Poles were all executed, about 200 000 of them. The Nazis targeted the elite in a similarly genocidal manner, though they looked that elite up by documents, not hands.

Poland never surrendered.

1) This is how the Individualist societies see the borders of one’s self. The picture looks like a sun - for the border of one’s influence isn’t quite defined, but the border of the person - is.

2) One for the Collectivist society. The groups are a part/extension of one’s self. The outer sphere of influence didn’t fit the scale (we talk about the influence of a whole group.) “Me” has no definite borders, as the social roles are what defines person.

3) A model of cultural development for the Collectivist societies - “one can reach only as high, as deep one’s roots go.” A child needs to become a part of culture in order to make history.

If one names it by Western concepts, in a Collectivist society a family is a part of one’s self. The eldest members have most of one’s memory and experience, thus they are highly valued. Each person has their role, each is defined by their roles. To loose one’s society would be a fate worse than death. Sacrificing one person for the sake of whole is like sacrificing a limb for the sake of whole body - one would go very far to avoid it. (Also, it doesn’t matter if you are the one being sacrificed or if it’s someone else from the group - it feels just as bad. But if it’s the only chance for group’s survival - one decides only by judging their own usefulness to the group, for the survival instinct is shifted to ensuring the survival of the group.)

It’s harder for a person to change, but when one person from the group does it for some (important!) reason, everyone else does.

bookworm555
Forget stardust—you are iron. Your blood is nothing but ferrous liquid. When you bleed, you reek of rust. It is iron that fills your heart and sits in your veins. And what is iron, really, unless it’s forged? You are iron. And you are strong.

n.t. (via thelittle-hobbit)

Damn right you’re iron, and do you know where iron comes from? Do you know how iron gets here? Let me tell you.

It does start with a star, but it’s not some dismal castoff from an eternal beauty, it’s so much more. Everything that makes our world came from stars, but nothing had as much effect on that star as iron.

See the sun burning in the sky? The light you see and the heat you feel are created when the sun fuses elements, the building blocks of our world, into new and heavier elements. The sun lives because more energy comes from that process than is needed to support it.

UNTIL IRON COMES ALONG.

Fusing iron — burning it to make a star shine — is nigh on impossible. Iron is strong and iron is heavy. Iron is so strong and so heavy that to make new elements from iron takes more energy than it produces. The star can’t keep up, it starts to die.

The iron that flows through your veins KILLED A STAR.

Those other metals that we so value, like gold, owe their existence to iron. As the star died it collapsed, crushing itself and making gold and platinum and other precious and powerful things. Then it exploded and scattered those metals throughout space.

Chief among them was iron. The iron whose formation was the death knell of the star. The iron whose intensity made other metals possible. The iron that was the last thing the living star could make.

Stars lived to make iron.

Stars died to make you.

(via noctumsolis)

Brings whole new meaning to “forged in the heart of a dying star”

(via tygenco)

field-poppies
dialga:

chakrabot:

slitheringink:

artofcarmen:

fyeahwhovians:

raygender:

themediafix:

Breaking news: The D.C. Appeals Court just killed Net Neutrality.This could be the end of the Internet as we know it. But it doesn’t have to be. Tell the FCC to restore Net Neutrality: http://bit.ly/1iOOjoe

they want to make the internet like tv. with channels and paying to get to specific websites and things. net neutrality = not doing that

This impacts every internet user. Please signal boost the hell out of this and sign the petition if you are American

I do not reblog things like this very often, but this affects me both personally and my business as a freelance artist.
In the economy here; cash is already strapped as it is. You bet your ass companies would suck the ever living life out of misc. art sites.
I don’t want it to ever come down to me choosing between groceries or purchasing a new tier package via comcast to be able to access tumblr or DeviantArt (let alone not guaranteeing I’ll even be seen by my customer base since they may not want to pay out their asses either). It doesn’t seem important to most, but I do 90% of my business online entirely.
Please sign up, fight for this and share it with your followers/friends/family and urge them to give them hell as well.

Not writing related, but this is incredibly important. While we pay for service via ISPs, the internet has been a relatively free space where everyone, no matter their income level, is able to connect, access a wealth of information, and express themselves. The Internet has become a major part of our culture as human beings and the notion that ISPs might be able to limit what sites I can access unless I pay them more is utterly sickening. A lot of us are cash strapped as is, and I’d rather not be limited even more by someone else’s greed. Net Neutrality is essential and I hope you guys will understand why it needs to remain.
-Morgan
P.S. Signal boost this if you’re able.

“ limit what sites I can access unless I pay them more”
 limit what sites I can access unless I pay them more
 limit what sites I can access unless I pay them more
 limit what sites I can access unless I pay them more
 limit what sites I can access unless I pay them more
DO YOU WANT THIS? NO?? CLICK THE LINK. REBLOG.

what the fuck

It’s not just money, it’s about censorship - because guess what happens when someone can limit what information one can access. (Imagine no info on Ferguson, no info on war in Ukraine… etc.)
(I remember what was happening before ACTA got rejected in Poland - the government only (seemingly) backed off at early signs of a possible uprising coming. I can fully imagine this issue ending up in a similar fashion.)

dialga:

chakrabot:

slitheringink:

artofcarmen:

fyeahwhovians:

raygender:

themediafix:

Breaking news: The D.C. Appeals Court just killed Net Neutrality.

This could be the end of the Internet as we know it. But it doesn’t have to be. 

Tell the FCC to restore Net Neutrality: http://bit.ly/1iOOjoe

they want to make the internet like tv. with channels and paying to get to specific websites and things. net neutrality = not doing that

This impacts every internet user. Please signal boost the hell out of this and sign the petition if you are American

I do not reblog things like this very often, but this affects me both personally and my business as a freelance artist.

In the economy here; cash is already strapped as it is. You bet your ass companies would suck the ever living life out of misc. art sites.

I don’t want it to ever come down to me choosing between groceries or purchasing a new tier package via comcast to be able to access tumblr or DeviantArt (let alone not guaranteeing I’ll even be seen by my customer base since they may not want to pay out their asses either). It doesn’t seem important to most, but I do 90% of my business online entirely.

Please sign up, fight for this and share it with your followers/friends/family and urge them to give them hell as well.

Not writing related, but this is incredibly important. While we pay for service via ISPs, the internet has been a relatively free space where everyone, no matter their income level, is able to connect, access a wealth of information, and express themselves. The Internet has become a major part of our culture as human beings and the notion that ISPs might be able to limit what sites I can access unless I pay them more is utterly sickening. A lot of us are cash strapped as is, and I’d rather not be limited even more by someone else’s greed. Net Neutrality is essential and I hope you guys will understand why it needs to remain.

-Morgan

P.S. Signal boost this if you’re able.

“ limit what sites I can access unless I pay them more”

 limit what sites I can access unless I pay them more

 limit what sites I can access unless I pay them more

 limit what sites I can access unless I pay them more

 limit what sites I can access unless I pay them more

DO YOU WANT THIS? NO?? CLICK THE LINK. REBLOG.

what the fuck

It’s not just money, it’s about censorship - because guess what happens when someone can limit what information one can access. (Imagine no info on Ferguson, no info on war in Ukraine… etc.)

(I remember what was happening before ACTA got rejected in Poland - the government only (seemingly) backed off at early signs of a possible uprising coming. I can fully imagine this issue ending up in a similar fashion.)

bookworm555

People, please read this!

ottoman-empress:

THERE IS NO SUCH THING AS A “Q” IN THE TURKISH ALPHABET, SO PLEASE STOP WRITING TURKEY’S NAME AS “SADIQ”!!!!!! 

I know that Hetalian names aren’t completely accurate, but seriously, it’s not Sadiq. It’s Sadık, please remember the dotless “I” because there is a difference in Turkish. Also, the two are pronounced slightly differently, and it’s kinda hard for me to explain how to pronounce it, so you can just look it up.

Thank you!

Thank you!

Also:

1)

APH Poland’s name is Feliks Łukasiewicz. (The Polish fandom generally agrees that he has an unused anywhere besides some documents second name Lech or Leszek - because that’s how it is with the most Poles and that particular names mean simply “Polish” in an anachronistic way) It’s acceptable to write it as “Lukasiewicz” if you don’t have an “Ł” available, the Poles sometimes do that. No “x” in documents, Polish language doesn’t have that letter, though it’s sometimes used in a slang-equivalent type of writing, to look quirky and to use less letters; so he can sign e.g. an informal e-mail like that, but it’s not for narration. 

Not “Felicks,” never ever! Any Polish person would sound out that one like |Felitskz|, good luck pronouncing it when calling someone from far off! Besides, due to the Name Day tradition, Poland has a list of possible first names - you can ask a clerk to add something to that list when registering your baby, but not if it’s too similar to an already existing name, and only as long as it fits some general rules. Besides, all first names in Poland are gendered.

"Feliks" can be shortened to "Felek" (charming troublemaker type of shortening, commonly used for this name) or “Feluś” (sweet type, rarely used - but feminine name Felicja can be shortened to “Feluś,” too - if you need to swing the plot that way.) Not “Feli,” unless the plot explains why would he use a Western type of name-shortening. (One can also find ffs where Czech calls Feliks “Felosław,” but that’s a world-play only between those two languages and Czech only uses that because it sounds pompous.)

(When we are at that, I’d like to note that Feliks’ birthday is November 11th, to mark the 11/11/1918. Never ever use July 22nd - during the Soviet occupation it was a holiday designed to humiliate Poles, therefore a touchy subject to the Polish Hetalians.)

2)

Hungary’s name is Héderváry Erzsébet. Yep, surname goes first in Hungarian language. Hungarians also use similar-looking letters when theirs aren’t available, though. Her first name shortens to Erzsi, which an English-speaking person would likely mispronounce as |Eshee| - so it’s legitimate for her to go by “Elizabeth” or some nickname when in an a country that doesn’t have the “zs” consonant (like East-Asian or English-speaking.)

Erzsébet is a traditional name for a mentally strong woman. Both famous and infamous were called that. It’s feminine, though, so Nyo!Hungary would have to go by something different. (If you want to swing the plot that way - Hungarian language has no distinction between words “he” and “she.”)

(Note again - when writing Hungary’s birthday, make sure that it’s her Independence Day! Mr. Himaruya had confused the dates for her, too!)

3)

When you want to name your child in Lithuanian, you have to keep some grammatical rules. Masculine first names and masculine forms of surnames generally end with an “s,” things like that. When you shorten them, be sure to keep that “-s.”

Anyway, it leads to a situation when while both “Toris” and “Taurys” are grammatically correct and plausible (as far as I know, it’s the same with the surname,) none of them is a traditional name. The closest traditional name is Tolys.

4)

In China surnames go first - so his is technically Wang Yao. Chinese names are short already, the people don’t shorten them when speaking with friends - so it stays as either Mr. Wang or Wang Yao, unless there is a reason for another character call him differently. I can certainly see Alfred preferring an American way of addressing, but Alfred isn’t all characters - and whole “Wang Yao” can be used the way one uses a first name between friends.

A family member or a lover would likely “shorten” the name to “Yao-Yao.”

—-

Thank you.

lanas-aphrontistery

therudestbuddhist:

don’t fucking tell me that my talent is a “blessing” or a “gift.”  it wasn’t given to me at all.  i got to where i am today because i picked up a crayon in kindergarten and i haven’t put it down for 20 fucking years, not because some supernatural entity decided to sprinkle a little magic talent dust into my dna

ginara

historia-polski:

Baptism of Poland - Chrzest Polski

"The Christianization of Poland refers to the introduction and subsequent spread of Christianity in Poland.  The impetus to the process was the Baptism of Poland, the personal baptism of Mieszko I, the first ruler of the Polish state, and much of his court. The ceremony took place on the Holy Saturday of 14 April 966, although the exact location is still disputed by historians, with the cities of Poznań and Gniezno being the most likely sites. Mieszko’s wife, Dobrawa of Bohemia is often credited as a major influence on Mieszko’s decision to accept Christianity.

While the spread of Christianity in Poland took centuries to finish, the process was ultimately successful, as within several decades Poland joined the rank of established European states recognized by the papacy and the Holy Roman Empire. According to some historians the baptism of Poland marks the beginning of Polish statehood.

Before the adoption of Christianity, Poland was a pagan country. Svetovid was among the most widespread pagan gods worshiped in Poland. Christianity arrived on the Polish lands around the late 9th century, most likely around the time when the Vistulan tribe encountered the Christian rite in dealings with their neighbors, the Great Moravia (Bohemian) state. Although some of the Great Moravian Christian rites and faith might have spread to the Polish lands soon afterward, there is little conclusive evidence for that.

Nonetheless, the Moravian cultural influence played a significant role in the spread of Christianity onto the Polish lands and the subsequent adoption of that religion.  In fact, the Christianization of Poland through the Czech–Polish alliance represented a conscious choice on the part of Polish rulers to ally themselves with the Czech state rather than the German one.  In a similar fashion, some of the later political struggles involved the Polish Church refusing to subordinate itself to the German hierarchy and instead being directly subordinate to the Vatican.

The [Baptism] ceremony was preceded by a week of oral catechism and several days of fasting. The actual ceremony involved pouring water over the segregated groups of men and women, although it is possible that their heads were immersed instead, and anointed with the chrism.

The baptismal mission which began in the two major cities of Gniezno and Poznań with the baptism of Mieszko and his court spread throughout the country.  During the 10th and 11th centuries various ecclesiastical organs were established in Poland.  This included the building of churches and the appointment of clergy.  The first Bishop of Poland, Jordan, was appointed by Pope John XIII in 968.  Mieszko’s son Bolesław I Chrobry supported Christianization missions to neighboring lands, notably the mission of future Saint Adalbert of Prague to Old Prussians, and established the Archbishopric of Gniezno in the year 1000.

Although at first the Christian religion was ‘unpopular and alien’, Mieszko’s baptism was highly influential but needed to be enforced by the state, and ran into some popular opposition, including an uprising in the 1030s (particularly intense in the years of 1035–1037).  Nonetheless, by that time Poland had won recognition as a proper European state, both from the papacy and from the Holy Roman Empire.

Out of various Polish provinces, Christianity’s spread was slowest in Pomerania, where it gained a significant following only around the 12th century.  Initially, the clergy came from the Western Christian European countries; native Polish clergy took three or four generations to emerge, and were supported by the monasteries and friars that grew increasingly common in the 12th century.  By the 13th century Roman Catholicism had become the dominant religion throughout Poland.

In adopting Christianity as the state religion, Mieszko sought to achieve several personal goals.  He saw Poland’s baptism as a way of strengthening his hold on power, as well as using it as a unifying force for the Polish people.  It replaced several smaller cults with a single, central one, clearly associated with the royal court.  It would also improve the position and respectability of the Polish state on the international, European scene.  The Church also helped to strengthen the monarch’s authority, and brought to Poland much experience with regard to state administration. Thus, the Church organization supported the state, and in return, bishops received important government titles (in the later era, they were members of the Senate of Poland).” (source)

Images:

Christianization of Poland A.D. 966, Jan Matejko, 1889.

Mieszko I, Jan Matejko, late 19th century.

Dobrawa of Bohemia, Jan Matejko, late 19th century.

Map of Poland during the reign of Mieszko I, c. 960-992.